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C+RAFT (obtained from Coaching Writing in Content Areas by William Strong, 2012) is an assignment planning strategy that teachers can use to design assignments or suggest students use in planning writing projects.


This strategy leverages the familiar RAFT acronym for determining writing topics and assignments with author William Strong’s addition of the C element. The elements break down as follows:

  • C = Context (precise context for this instance of writing)
  • R = Role (student’s specific role as the author)
  • A = Audience (to/for whom is the student writing)
  • F = Format (what is the type of writing)
  • T = Topic (about what is the student writing)

An assignment based on these criteria then immerses students fully in a purposeful and meaningful task. The intent of designing assignments in this capacity is to answer every aspect of the “Why am I writing this?” question. Consider the following example (from Strong, 2012).

Example: Science/Anatomy

Along the traditional lines of the RAFT process:

  • Role = heart
  • Audience = student’s self
  • Format = complaint
  • Topic = level of physical activity

Adding the context, then assigns additional motivation such as physical activity has been low and the heart is concerned that it isn’t getting stronger.

Based on the above considerations, the students then write letters of complaint. For additional dynamism, consider allowing students choice in the role category, all other things remaining the same. They might select other body parts or organs or systems. Additionally, the teacher or other students can assume the role of the audience in this case and draft responses.


For more examples and resources on using the RAFT strategy, visit

For an example planning doc, click here to use Google Docs or view below for the PDF

CRAFT Planning Doc

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