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7 Norms of Collaboration

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A norm is a behavior you’d like everyone in the group or team to follow. The 7 Norms of Collaboration are from the work of Bob Garmston and Bruce Wellman with Adaptive Schools. The seven norms provide a common framework for groups to hold conversations and interact together.


The 7 Norms are

  • pausing,
  • paraphrasing,
  • posing questions,
  • putting ideas on the table,
  • providing data,
  • paying attention to self and others, and
  • presuming positive intentions

It is best to have the 7 Norms posted in your classroom for everyone to regularly access them. A common way to introduce the Norms of Collaboration is to create a shared reading process, using the annotated edition that defines and exemplifies the Norms. Group members then engage in reflective conversations about the reading, in pairs or table groups, guided by questions.


Read more and listen to the podcast from Dr. Amy Climer.

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