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What, So what, Now what?

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What? So what? Now what? is a reflective process strategy that encourages continuous reflection and provides a simple framework for reflecting on any task or experience.


To implement the strategy, provide students with a basic framework for reflection after a task or experience. It is helpful to use a guided notes or graphic organizer page to start that includes the following considerations and example questions:

What? (a clear, objective description of what just happened)

  • … happened?
  • … did I do?
  • … did others do?
  • … was the purpose of ___?

So what? (a more in-depth analysis of what just happened)

  • … do I feel about ___?
  • … is important about ___?
  • … were the effects of doing/not doing ___?
  • … are the implications of ___?

Now what? (the proposed actions or next steps)

  • … are the implications of ___ if I do ___?
  • … should I do about ___?
  • … should I do differently?
  • … should I do next?

The ultimate goal is to turn the reflection framework into a routine process. Consider using the framework in individual reflections as well as group discussions, exit tickets, or restorative practices.


Read more about this reflective process at

Watch the complete description of the strategy here:

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